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Undergraduate Research at Johns Hopkins University

I got my first real exposure to research by writing FORTRAN programs for my undergraduate mentor, Prof. Mandell Bellmore. My initial project involved implementing a subtour elimination algorithm for the symmetric traveling salesman's problem, developed by Prof. Bellmore's Ph.D. student, John Malone. The results were published in their 1971 Operations Research paper, Pathology of Traveling-Salesman Subtour-Elimination Algorithms.  Subsequently, I implemented an algorithm developed by Prof. Bellmore's Ph.D. student, H. D. Ratliff, that was reported in their 1971 Management Science paper,  Optimal Defense of Multi-Commodity Networks.

Ph.D. Research at Stanford University

After graduating from Johns Hopkins in 1970, I was a Ph.D. student in Computer Science at Stanford University from September 1970 until July 1976.  During this time, I was affiliated with the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (SAIL), which at the time was located in a building on Arastradero Road, above the Stanford campus.  My initial funding came from my NSF graduate fellowship.  Subsequently, I was supported as a research assistant from a grant under the NSF "Research Applied to National Needs (RANN)" program.  

My research activity primarily focused on three major areas:

Early Work at IBM (before I got into Medical Robotics)

I joined IBM's T.J. Watson Research Center in July 1996 as a Research Staff Member.  I spent a total of 19 years in IBM as a Research Staff Member and Research Manager before moving to Johns Hopkins University in September 1995.  During that time, I was involved in numerous projects, initially focused on manufacturing applications and (later) on medical applications of robotic systems.  Here are a few highlights: