Table of ContentsIntroduction to Natural Language Processing (600.465)LM Smoothing (The EM Algorithm) The Zero Problem Why do we need Nonzero Probs? Eliminating the Zero Probabilities:Smoothing Smoothing by Adding 1 Adding less than 1 Good - Turing Good-Turing: An Example Smoothing by Combination:Linear Interpolation Typical n-gram LM Smoothing Held-out Data The Formulas The (Smoothing) EM Algorithm Remark on Linear Interpolation Smoothing Bucketed Smoothing: The Algorithm Simple Example Some More Technical Hints |
Author: Jan Hajic
Email: hajic@cs.jhu.edu Home Page: http://www.cs.jhu.edu/~hajic/courses/cs465/syllabus.html |