Secret-Ballot Receipts: True Voter-Verifiable Elections

David Chaum

A new kind of receipt sets a far higher standard of security by letting voters verify correctness of the election out

In the voting booth, the voter can see his or her choices clearly indicated on the receipt. After taking it out of the booth, the voter can use it to ensure that the votes it contains are included correctly in the final tally. But, because the choices are safely encrypted before it can be removed from the booth, the receipt cannot be used to show others how the voter voted.

Several ways to realize such receipts will be described. Some are well suited to be added on to current touch-screen voting machines. A very simple type will be introduced that is similar in use to current optical scan voting systems.